He reached into his pocket and pulled out an old sanitary pad. I have to use this. Laying the pus-covered pad on the desk in front of him, he gave up his secret. During his escape from the civil war in neighbouring Congo, he had been separated from his wife and taken by rebels. His captors raped him, three times a day, every day for three years. And he wasn't the only one. He watched as man after man was taken and raped. The wounds of one were so grievous that he died in the cell in front of him.
But I know now that sexual violence against men is a huge problem. Everybody has heard the women's stories. But nobody has heard the men's. It's not just in East Africa that these stories remain unheard. One of the few academics to have looked into the issue in any detail is Lara Stemple, of the University of California's Health and Human Rights Law Project.
Her study Male Rape and Human Rights notes incidents of male sexual violence as a weapon of wartime or political aggression in countries such as Chile, Greece, Croatia, Iran, Kuwait, the former Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia. Twenty-one per cent of Sri Lankan males who were seen at a London torture treatment centre reported sexual abuse while in detention.
I've come to Kampala to hear the stories of the few brave men who have agreed to speak to me: a rare opportunity to find out about a controversial and deeply taboo issue.
In Uganda, survivors are at risk of arrest by police, as they are likely to assume that they're gay - a crime in this country and in 38 of the 53 African nations. They will probably be ostracised by friends, rejected by family and turned away by the UN and the myriad international NGOs that are equipped, trained and ready to help women.
They are wounded, isolated and in danger. In the words of Owiny: "They are despised.
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But they are willing to talk, thanks largely to the RLP's British director, Dr Chris Dolan. Dolan first heard of wartime sexual violence against men in the late s while researching his PhD in northern Uganda, and he sensed that the problem might be dramatically underestimated.
Keen to gain a fuller grasp of its depth and nature, he put up posters throughout Kampala in June announcing a "workshop" on the issue in a local school.
On the day, men arrived.
During the American Civil War, sexual behavior, gender roles, and attitudes were affected by the conflict, especially by the absence of menfolk at home and the emergence of new roles for women such as masala-magazin.com advent of photography and easier media distribution, for example, allowed for greater access to sexual material for the common masala-magazin.comted Reading Time: 8 mins
In a burst of candour, one attendee admitted: "It's happened to all of us here. Slowly, more victims began to come forward. I meet Jean Paul on the hot, dusty roof of the RLP's HQ in Old Kampala. He wears a scarlet high-buttoned shirt and holds himself with his neck lowered, his eyes cast towards the ground, as if in apology for his impressive height.
He has a prominent upper lip that shakes continually - a nervous condition that makes him appear as if he's on the verge of tears. Jean Paul was at university in Congo, studying electronic engineering, when his father - a wealthy businessman - was accused by the army of aiding the enemy and shot dead. Jean Paul fled in Januaryonly to be abducted by rebels. Along with six other men and six women he was marched to a forest in the Virunga National Park. Later that day, the rebels and their prisoners met up with their cohorts who were camped out in the woods.
Small camp fires could be seen here and there between the shadowy ranks of trees. While the women were sent off to prepare food and coffee, 12 armed fighters surrounded the men.
From his place on the ground, Jean Paul looked up to see the commander leaning over them. In his 50s, he was bald, fat and in military uniform.
He wore a red bandana around his neck and had strings of leaves tied around his elbows. Jean Paul thought he was joking. He shook his head and said: "I cannot do these things. The commander called a rebel over. Jean Paul could see that he was only about nine years old. He was told, "Beat this man and remove this clothes. Eventually, Jean Paul begged: "Okay, okay. I will take off my clothes. At this point, Jean Paul breaks off. The shaking in his lip more pronounced than ever, he lowers his head a little further and says: "I am sorry for the things I am going to say now.
Singing a witch doctor song, and with everybody watching, the commander then began. The moment he started, Jean Paul vomited.
Eleven rebels waited in a queue and raped Jean Paul in turn. When he was too exhausted to hold himself up, the next attacker would wrap his arm under Jean Paul's hips and lift him by the stomach.
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He bled freely: "Many, many, many bleeding," he says, "I could feel it like water. On the ninth day, they were looking for firewood when Jean Paul spotted a huge tree with roots that formed a small grotto of shadows. Seizing his moment, he crawled in and watched, trembling, as the rebel guards searched for him. After five hours of watching their feet as they hunted for him, he listened as they came up with a plan: they would let off a round of gunfire and tell the commander that Jean Paul had been killed.
Eventually he emerged, weak from his ordeal and his diet of only two bananas per day during his captivity. Dressed only in his underpants, he crawled through the undergrowth "slowly, slowly, slowly, slowly, like a snake" back into town.
Today, despite his hospital treatment, Jean Paul still bleeds when he walks.
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Like many victims, the wounds are such that he's supposed to restrict his diet to soft foods such as bananas, which are expensive, and Jean Paul can only afford maize and millet. His brother keeps asking what's wrong with him. It is for this reason that both perpetrator and victim enter a conspiracy of silence and why male survivors often find, once their story is discovered, that they lose the support and comfort of those around them. In the patriarchal societies found in many developing countries, gender roles are strictly defined.
You should never break down or cry. A man must be a leader and provide for the whole family.
When he fails to reach that set standard, society perceives that there is something wrong. Often, she says, wives who discover their husbands have been raped decide to leave them. As what? Is this still a husband? Once they arrived back in Nashville, Lt. Spalding created a system of registration similar to European ones. He inadvertently created the first legal system of prostitution. Prostitution experienced a large growth and spread across the North and Southand was one of the few industries to cross enemy lines throughout the duration of the war.
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During the Civil Warthe United States Sanitary Commissiona federal civilian agency, handled most of the medical and nursing care of the Union armies, together with necessary acquisition and transportation of medical supplies. Dorothea Dixserving as the Commission's Superintendent, was able to convince the medical corps of the value of women working in Commission or Army hospitals. They gave good cheer, wrote letters the men dictated, and comforted the dying. Gilson of Chelsea, Massachusetts, who served in Sanitary Commission.
She supervised supplies, dressed wounds, and cooked special foods for patients on a limited diet.
The Naked Civil War Battle
She worked in hospitals after the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg. She was a successful administrator, especially at the hospital for black soldiers at City Point, Virginia. Mary Livermore Mary Ann Bickerdykeand Annie Wittenmeyer played leadership roles. She was an energetic organizer who established the American Red Crosswhich was primarily a disaster relief agency but which also supported nursing programs.
Several thousand women were just as active in nursing in the Confederacy, but were less well organized and faced severe shortages of supplies and a much weaker system of hospitals. Nursing and vital support services were provided not only by matrons and nurses, but also by local volunteers, slaves, free blacks, and prisoners of war.
While men were fighting, many Northern wives needed to learn how to farm and do other manual labor. Besides having to tend to the home and children while the men were away at war, women also contributed supplies. Quilts and blankets were often given to soldiers. Some had encouraging messages sewn on them.
They also sent shirts, sheets, pillows, pillowcases, coats, vests, trousers, towels, handkerchiefs, socks, bandages, canned fruits, dried fruits, butter, cheese, wine, eggs, pickles, books, and magazines. At the start southern women gave zealous support for their menfolk going off to war. They saw the men as protectors and invested heavily in the romantic idea of men fighting to defend the honor of their country, family, and way of life.
African American women, on the other hand, had experienced the breakup of families for generations and were once again dealing with this issue at the outbreak of war.
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By summerthe Union naval blockade virtually shut down the export of cotton and the import of manufactured goods. Food that formerly came overland was cut off.
Civil War: Book One, The Life of Billy Yank. This writer has found that the 'Coulee Boys' l experiences in the field and camps were similiar to those contained in other accounts. However, some of the published sources do not include the personal worries of the soldiers. 5 Lack of these is a During his escape from the civil war in neighbouring Congo, it seems unlikely that any of these new funds will reach the thousands of men and boys who suffer from this kind of masala-magazin.comted Reading Time: 7 mins union drummer boy - civil war drummer boy stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. 3rd New Hampshire Infantry Military Band with their instruments at military camp in Hilton Head, South Carolina, during the Civil War. An engraving of a little drummer boy sitting on a soldiers shoulders during the US civil war, circa
Women had charge of making do. They cut back on purchases, brought out old spinning wheels and enlarged their gardens with peas and peanuts to provide clothing and food. They used ersatz substitutes when possible, but there was no real coffee and it was hard to develop a taste for the okra or chicory substitutes used.
The households were severely hurt by inflation in the cost of everyday items and the shortages of food, fodder for the animals, and medical supplies for the wounded. But food shortages only worsened, especially in the towns. The overall decline in food supplies, made worse by the collapsing transportation system, led to serious shortages and high prices in urban areas.
Author: J. Arthur Moore. Title: Boys of the Civil War. In a war in which more than , participants were underage children and youth, the history of the battlefields and military life of the Civil War is written in the journals and letters of Charles William Bardeen, William Bircher, Elisha Stockwell, Johnnie Wickersham, and other boys vintage civil war print of a union drummer boy, john clem, holding a rifle on the battlefield. john clem gained fame for his bravery during battle and later became a general in the united states army. - civil war drummer boy stock illustrations The bloodiest war in American history was often fought by child soldiers. The Civil War claime lives - nearly as many American casualties as every other war fought by the United States combined. And one out of every five people who enlisted to risk their lives fighting their fellow countrymen was less than 18 years masala-magazin.comted Reading Time: 6 mins
When bacon reached a dollar a pound inthe poor women of Richmond, Atlanta and many other cities began to riot; they broke into shops and warehouses to seize food. The women expressed their anger at ineffective state relief efforts, speculators, merchants and planters.
As wives and widows of soldiers they were hurt by the inadequate welfare system. Upper-class plantation mistresses often had to manage the estates which the younger men had left behind, Overseers of the slaves were exempt from the draft, and usually remained on the plantations.
The age of the groom went up as younger women married older planters, and birth rates dropped sharply during during Reconstruction. However he finds that plantation mistresses were not more likely to operate plantations than in earlier years, nor was there a lost generation of women without men.
The number of female soldiers in the war is estimated at between an although an accurate count is impossible because the women had to disguise themselves as men. A captured Confederate officer whose true sex was previously unknown by the guards gave birth in a Union prison camp. The Civil War was generally a time of challenges to traditional gender norms, as women mobilized themselves to participate in the war effort and left the home in droves to serve as charity workers, nurses, clerks, farm laborers, and political activists.
Military training became mandatory at some private girls' academies. The most dramatic and extreme challenge to gender roles, then, came with those women who participated in the Civil War as fully enlisted combatants.
Though not particularly well known today, it is estimated that there are over women who enlisted in both the Union and Confederate armies under assumed male identities. Unlike the members of the all-female militias, the female enlisted soldiers were drawn disproportionately from working- and lower-middle-class backgrounds-and therefore represented a radically different cultural milieu. Mid-nineteenth-century working-class culture, for example, was generally familiar-if not comfortable-with female cross-dressing, with the phenomenon being prominently featured in popular theatrical and literary pieces with mass audiences.
Women had different motivations for joining the army, just as did their male counterparts. A common reason was to escape pre-arranged marriages. Sarah Edmonds, for example, left her home in maritime Canada and fled to the United States to avoid marriage-but took the ultimate protective step of dressing as a man and enlisting in the Union Army to avoid detection. She was, therefore, compelled to enlist by an economic imperative; the prospect of steady pay as an enlisted soldier in the Union Army appeared to be preferable to the instability of day labor.
The existence of illicit female soldiers was an open secret in both the wartime Union and Confederacy, with stories commonly shared in both soldiers' letters and newspaper articles.
This curiosity is reflected in the literature of the period. Wartime romance novels idealised these women as heroines sacrificing themselves for love of country and menfolk, while Frank Moore's popular history Women and the Civil War: Their Heroism and Their Sacrifice prominently featured an entire chapter on the female soldiers of the war.
For instance, Moore refers to one particular female soldier as an "American Joan of Arc", attempting to frame her wartime exploits within a recognisable paradigm of holy war and divine inspiration. Regardless of generally warm popular opinion, however, female soldiers actually faced significant suspicion and opposition from within the armies themselves.
One such test was to toss a soldier an apple; if he held out his shirttails to catch the apple as if in an apron, he would be deemed to be a woman, and would be subject to further investigation. Women who passed the scrutiny of their fellow soldiers, however, were nonetheless expected to perform to the same standard-and so female soldiers largely blended in with their male fellows-in-arms, performing the same duties with fairly minimal risk of exposure.
Female veteran Sarah Edmonds, the runaway Canadian bride, lived under the masculine identity of Franklin Thompson for the rest of her life, and even was granted a pension for her service by Congress in while Jennie Hodgers continued living as Albert Cashier before being discovered and forced back into feminine dress after having been institutionalized for dementia in Some soldiers engaged in acts of rape. The Confederate records were destroyed, but a perusal of only five percent of Federal records reveal that over thirty court martial trials were held due to instances of rape; hanging or firing squad being the usual punishment if convicted.
Federal troops who committed rape while invading the Southern states mostly took advantage of black rather than white women, and black soldiers were usually punished more severely for the crime than their white counterparts. On 24 AprilUnion President Abraham Lincoln signed the Lieber Codewhich amongst other things contained one of the first explicit prohibitions on rape.
all rape by an American soldier in a hostile country against its inhabitants under the penalty of death, or such other severe punishment as may seem adequate for the gravity of the offense.
The term " homosexuality " was not coined until thirty years after the war ended. However, no army soldiers were disciplined for such activity, although three pairs of Union Navy sailors were punished, all in There was only one case of male prostitution reported during the war. The Richmond Dispatch reported on May 13,that since the moving of the Confederacy 's capital to Richmond that "loose males of the most abandoned character from other parts of the Confederacy" had moved to Richmond and "prostitutes of both sexes" openly displayed themselves in carriages and on sidewalks.
Ina ball was put on by a Massachusetts regiment stationed in Virginia featuring young drummer boys dressed as women.
One man wrote to his wife that he had slept with one of the "boy-girls. Scholars have tried to ascertain if certain Civil War figures were homosexual. The most notable of these was Confederate major general Patrick Cleburnealthough it is still disputed.
After the war, many Southern men felt their manhood diminished in a manner some historians dubbed a "crisis of gender"; a crisis exacerbated after Confederate president Jefferson Davis was apprehended by Union soldiers wearing his wife's shawl for warmth. The false rumor quickly spread in the North that Davis was caught during his escape while dressed as a woman. Period drawings depicting Davis in full women's dress bonnet included were used to ridicule the Confederacy's former President.
One thing that came from the spread of pornography during the war was the rise of anti-pornography forces; in particular, the Comstock laws. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Further information: Prostitution in the United States § 19th century. Further information: List of female American Civil War soldiers. Dorothea Dix: New England Reformer. Harvard University Press. ISBN Winter doi : JSTOR Civil War History. Gilson, army nurse". PMID A Strong-Minded Woman: The Life of Mary Livermore.
University of Massachusetts Press. Our Army Nurses: Stories from Women in the Civil War. Clara Barton: In the Service of Humanity. Greenwood Press. Worth a Dozen Men: Women and Nursing in the Civil War South. University of Virginia Press. Moore May De Sales Brennan during the American Civil War".
Irish Studies Review. S2CID Journal of Social History. Hurn, Wisconsin Women in the War between the States Wisconsin History Commission, Trials and Triumphs: American Woman in the Civil War. Michigan State University.
American Civil War, fought between an claime lives and one in five soldiers were kids. It is estimated that up to , of the Estimated Reading Time: 8 mins The Lijenquist boys became fascinated with Civil War photography after collecting this picture and set about amassing their enormous and impressive masala-magazin.comted Reading Time: 8 mins Browse 6, civil war dead stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. Dead soldiers lie on the battlefield at Gettysburg, where 23, Union troops and 25, Confederate troops were killed during the Civil War. July
Southern Families at War. Oxford University Press US. Chesson, "Harlots or Heroines?